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新视野大学英语第三版第三册复习资料

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新视野大学英语第三版第三册复习资料

一、读写教程

Unit 1 The way to success

(一)Text A:Never, ever give up! 永不言弃!

As a young boy, Britain's great Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill, attended a public school called Harrow. He was not a good student, and had he not been from a famous family, he probably would have been removed from the school for deviating from the rules. Thankfully, he did finish at Harrow and his errors there did not preclude him from going on to the university. He eventually had a premier army career whereby he was later elected prime minister. He achieved fame for his wit, wisdom, civic duty, and abundant courage in his refusal to surrender during the miserable dark days of World War II. His amazing determination helped motivate his entire nation and was an inspiration worldwide. 英国的伟大首相温斯顿·丘吉尔爵士,小时候在哈罗公学上学。 当时他可不是个好学生,要不是出身名门,他可能早就因为违反纪律被开除了。 谢天谢地,他总算从哈罗毕业了,在那里犯下的错误并没影响到他上大学。 后来,他凭着军旅生涯中的杰出表现当选为英国首相。 他的才思、智慧、公民责任感以及在二战痛苦而黑暗的时期拒绝投降的无畏勇气,为他赢得了美名。 他非凡的决心,不仅激励了整个民族,还鼓舞了全世界。

 

Toward the end of his period as prime minister, he was invited to address the patriotic young boys at his old school, Harrow. The headmaster said, gentlemen, the greatest speaker of our time, will be here in a few days to address you, and you should

obey whatever sound advice he may give you.%up, all five feet, five inches and 107 kilos of him, and gave this short, clear-cut speech: 在他首相任期即将结束时,他应邀前往母校哈罗公学,为满怀报国之志的同学们作演讲。 校长说:“年轻的先生们,当代最伟大的演说家过几天就会来为你们演讲,他提出的任何中肯的建议,你们都要听从。” 那个激动人心的日子终于到了。 温斯顿爵士站了起来——他只有5英尺5英寸高,体重却有107公斤。他作了言简意赅的讲话:“年轻人,要永不放弃。永不放弃!永不放弃!永不,永不,永不,永不!”

 

Personal history, educational opportunity, individual dilemmas — none of these can inhibit a strong spirit committed to success. No task is too hard. No amount of preparation is too long or too difficult. Take the example of two of the most scholarly scientists of our age, Albert Einstein and Thomas Edison. Both faced immense obstacles and extreme

criticism. Both were called o learnnd written off as idiots by their teachers.

Thomas Edison ran away from school because his teacher whipped him repeatedly for asking too many questions. Einstein didn't speak fluently until he was almost nine years old and was such a poor student that some thought he was unable to learn. Yet both boys' parents believed in them. They worked intensely each day with their sons, and the boys learned to never bypass the long hours of hard work that they needed to succeed. In the end, both Einstein and Edison overcame their childhood persecution and went on to achieve magnificent discoveries that benefit the entire world today.

个人经历、教育机会、个人困境,这些都不能阻挡一个全力以赴追求成功的、有着坚强意志

的人。 任务再苦,准备再长,难度再大,都不能让他放弃自己的追求。 就以本时代最有学问的两位科学家——阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦和托马斯·爱迪生为例,他们都曾面临巨大的障碍和极端的批评,都曾被说成“不开窍”,被老师当成笨蛋而放弃。 托马斯·爱迪生还曾逃学,因为老师嫌他问的问题太多而经常鞭打他。 爱因斯坦一直到将近9岁才能流利地说话,学习成绩太差,有些人认为他都已经学不好了。 然而,这两个男孩的父母都相信他们。 他们坚持不懈地每天和儿子一起努力,孩子们也了解到,要想成功,就绝不要怕付出长期而艰辛的努力。 最终,爱因斯坦和爱迪生都摆脱了童年的困扰,进而作出了造福当今全世界的伟大发现。

 

Consider also the heroic example of Abraham Lincoln, who faced substantial hardships, failures and repeated misfortunes in his lifetime. His background was certainly not glamorous. He was raised in a very poor family with only one year of formal education. He failed in business twice, suffered a nervous breakdown when his first love died suddenly and lost eight political elections. Later in life, he suffered profound grief over the tragic death of three of his four children. Yet his strong will was the spur that pushed him forward, strengthening his optimism, dedication and determination. It intensified and focused his efforts and enabled him to triumph over the overwhelming failures and profound difficulties in his life. A hundred years later, people from around the world commend Abraham Lincoln as the greatest American president of all time.

再如亚伯拉罕·林肯这个英雄的典范,他一生面临了无数艰辛、失败和接二连三的不幸。 他的出身和经历真是一点也算不上光鲜。 他在一个非常贫困的家庭长大,只受过一年正规教育。 经商两度失败,初恋爱人的突然离世也使他精神崩溃,还在八次政治选举中落马。 此

后,他的四个孩子有三个不幸去世,令他悲痛欲绝。 然而,坚强的意志鞭策着他,推动他前进,使他更加乐观、投入、坚毅。 这让他得以全力以赴,一次次战胜生命中的巨大困难和挫折。 一百年之后,世界各地的人们都赞颂亚伯拉罕·林肯,认为他是有史以来最伟大的美国总统。

 

Just like Churchill and Lincoln, only those who who uphold a committed and focused will and spirit, will find their endeavors successful. Many artists, statesmen, writers and inventors have had the same experience. They achieved prosperity because they possessed a fierce will to keep preparing and working and a passion to succeed. They attained success, not because it was easy, but because they had the will to overcome profound obstacles and to work diligently in the pursuit of their goals. 与丘吉尔和林肯一样,只有那些“执著地追求成功”的人,那些保持始终如一的精神意志的人,才会通过自身的努力,获得成功。 许多艺术家、政治家、作家和发明家都有同样的经历。 他们之所以能取得这样的成就,是因为他们拥有强烈的意愿,不懈地准备、奋斗,并保持对成功的激情。 他们取得了成功,并不是因为成功很容易,而是因为他们拥有克服重重障碍的意志,为了追求目标而勤奋努力。

 

After growing up on a cattle ranch without running water or electricity, Sandra Day O'Connor fought to achieve the best education possible. Consistently graduating at the top of her class, she worked her way into Stanford Law School, where she graduated with honors. But despite all of her hard work, Sandra Day O'Connor was still a woman in the

1950s. Even with the prestige of her degree from Stanford, she was rejected from the entire law circuit as firms preferred to hire less qualified men rather than risk hiring a female lawyer, which was unprecedented. Yet Sandra Day O'Connor refused to give up on her dreams. Through sheer persistence she was eventually nominated and then appointed the first woman Supreme Court Justice of the United States of America. There, she acted as a crucial vote on issues like abortion and women's rights.

桑德拉·戴·奥康纳成长于既没自来水也没电的养牛场,她努力学习以使自己接受到最好的教育。 她的学习成绩在班上始终名列前茅,一路奋斗终于进入了斯坦福大学法学院,并以优异的成绩从法学院毕业。 尽管奥康纳勤奋刻苦,但在20世纪50年代,她仍然受到女人身份的制约。 即使斯坦福大学的学位有良好的声誉,她仍被整个法律界拒之门外,因为事务所宁愿聘请才干稍逊的男性,也不愿冒险破例雇佣一位女律师。 然而,桑德拉·戴·奥康纳并未放弃梦想。 她执著地坚持下去,终于得到提名并被任命为美国第一位女性最高法院大法官。 她任职期间,对很多问题,例如堕胎和妇女权利,都起到了极为关键的作用。

 

Many people simply say that they want something, but they do not expend the substantial effort required to achieve it. Many people let the threat of failure stop them from trying with all of their heart. The secret of success is based upon a burning inward desire — a robust, fierce will and focus — that fuels the determination to act, to keep preparing, to keep going even when we are tired and fail. As a wise saying goes: how many times you fall down that matters. It's how many times you get back up that makes success!

很多人只是嘴上说他们想要什么东西,但并不真正地付出大量努力去实现。 很多人因为害

 

怕失败而不敢全心尝试。 而成功的秘诀在于内心燃烧的欲望——一种坚定不移的意志和专注力——从而激发行动的决心,即使疲惫,即使失败,也会继续准备,继续前进。 正如一句箴言所说:“你摔倒了多少次并不要紧;你能多少次重新站起来对成功才至关重要!”

 

Focus on becoming more knowledgeable. Focus on gradual, consistent progress. Maintain the strong will to keep going — even when you are tired and want to slack or the odds seem too large. With hard work, determination, dedication and preparation, you can transcend any handicap, accomplish any feat, and achieve success!

专注于汲取更多的知识,争取持之以恒地渐进,保持永不言退的坚强意志——即使在你疲惫想要松懈的时候,或者困难重重之时。 “执著地追求成功!” “有志者,事竟成!” 只要刻苦努力,意志坚决,专心投入,准备充分,你就能跨越一切障碍,完成所有壮举,取得成功!

 

(二)Word Bank

Where there is a will, there is a way. This proverb means that if you are really determined to do something, however difficult it might be, you will 1) eventually find a way to do it well. The 2) premier point is that you must have the will to achieve success.

Ninety percent of the failures that occur are due to the fact that there is no strong will involved. Many people simply say that they want something, but they do not make any 3) endeavor to achieve it. So, instead of getting it, they use the poorest excuse to explain the situation away.

On many occasions, people tend to 4) bypass every minute obstacle, making the

objective impossible to attain. In reality, if they have the will to succeed, they can get rid of the 5) handicaps and achieve their goals.

Only those with a(n) 6) committed and focused will and spirit can fight their way to final victory. Many a famous man has the same experience. They have 7) attained their prestige because they have had the will to 8) transcend apparently insuperable (无法克服的) obstacles. Many artists, statesmen, writers and inventors have manged to succeed because they possess a fierce will, which has helped them to accomplish major 9) feats.

Therefore, we can see that the main thing which one needs is a strong will. Weak-willed people never climb to the top. They collapse at the 10) slightest use of force against them. Strong-willed people, on the other hand will stand up against all odds and will make it a point to succeed.

 

(三)Translation

如今,很多年轻人不再选择稳定的工作,他们更愿意自主创业,依靠自己的智慧和奋斗去实现自我价值。青年创业(young entrepreneurship)是未来国家经济活力的来源,创业者的成功不但会创造财富、增加就业机会、改善大家的生活,从长远来看,对于国家更是一件好事,创业者正是让中国经济升级换代的力量。尤其是在当前,国家鼓励大众创业、万众创新,在政策上给予中小企业支持,这更加激发了年轻人的创业热情。

Nowadays, many young people no longer choose “stable” jobs. Instead, they prefer to start their own businesses and realize their self-value through their own wisdom and efforts. Young entrepreneurship is the source of national economic vitality in the future. The success of entrepreneurs not only creates fortune, increases job opportunities,

improves people’s life, but it is also good for the country in the long term. Entrepreneurs are a driving force in upgrading China’s economy. Especially for the time being, our country is encouraging people to start their own businesses and make innovations and giving policy support for medium and small businesses. This further arouses young people's enthusiasm to start their own businesses.

Unit 2 Beat your fear

(一)Text A:Swimming through fear游越恐惧

I was on a tour of France with my friends when our car pulled to a stop at the beach and we saw the Mediterranean Sea. Massive waves surged against large rocks that formed a waterproof jetty. People said this beach was known for its notorious rip currents. I shivered with fear. Nothing scared me as much as water.

当时我和朋友正在法国旅行,我们把汽车停在海滩,眼前就是地中海。 巨浪翻滚击打着构筑起防波堤的偌大岩石。 人们说这里的海滩以其可怕的裂流而著称。 恐惧让我不寒而栗。 没有什么比水让我更害怕了。

 

Just the sight of the sea made me sick to my stomach. 只是看到了海就已经让我觉得反胃。

 

I'd always loved water and been a good swimmer until last summer, when I'd decided to climb up to the highest diving board at the pool. I'd hopped from that height and hit the water with an incredible impact. The air was ousted from my lungs and I blacked out. The next thing I knew, my brother was pulling my feeble body out of the pool. From then on,

my fear wouldn't recede; I was absolutely terrified of water.

我曾经一直都是喜欢水的,并且直到去年夏天我都还是一名游泳好手。那时,我决定爬上游泳池边上最高的跳板来跳水。 我从那么高的地方跳下,重重地撞击到水面上。 我肺里的空气一下子全被挤出去了,马上不省人事。 醒来时发现哥哥正把我虚弱的身体从游泳池里拖出来。 从那时起,我对水的恐惧就没有消退过,我怕极了水。

 

“贾森,你要过来吗?”我的朋友马特朝我喊道。

 

might deem my fear pathetic if they knew.

我说:“好,就是欣赏一下景色”,又在心里默默加了一句——在岸上欣赏。担心如果他们知道我害怕水而可怜我。

 

Suddenly I heard shouting in French. A mob of people were running into the sea, fully clothed. That's odd, I thought.

突然,我听到有人用法语喊叫。 接着看见一群人没脱衣服,就冲到海里。 我心想,这真是太奇怪了。

 

I glimpsed something moving up and down amid the waves, past the end of the jetty. I gasped, realizing the catastrophe with horror. That's a little boy out there! The would-be rescuers fought against the tide, but the situation was bleak. With the water's tow, they'd

never get to him in time.

我瞥见防波堤尽头的海浪中有个东西在上下浮动。 我惊恐地意识到大事不妙,倒吸了一口凉气,那居然是个小男孩! 前去救落水男童的人们搏击着海浪,但情况却不乐观。 由于水的拉拽,他们根本不可能及时游到小男孩身边。

 

I looked back at the boy. His head popped up, then a wave crashed over him and he disappeared for a moment; I had to intervene.

我扭头看看那小男孩。 他的头刚露出水面,然后一个浪头打过来,好一阵不见踪影——我不得不做点什么了。

 

I appraised the situation and realized — the jetty! The boy was close to it; maybe I could help from there. I raced down the beach, out onto the jetty, and it hit me: Water! My palms got sweaty and my stomach felt sick, symptoms of my fear. I stopped short. 我估计了当下的情形后注意到了——对,那防波堤! 小男孩靠近那个地方,也许我可以从那儿帮忙。 我冲下海滩,跑上防波堤,但突然我想起了什么——水! 顿时有了恐惧的症状:我手心冒汗,胃里感觉不适。 我一下子停下来。

 

The people in the water had underestimated the waves and weren't making any progress. I was the only one who saw that going out on the jetty was the fastest way to reach the drowning boy. Yet in the midst of this tragedy, I was extremely terrified. I tried to remember the lifeguard training I'd had as a teenager.

水里的那些人低估了海浪的威力,救援工作没有任何进展。 只有我注意到了跑到防波堤上

 

是到达溺水男童的最快的路径。 然而在此性命攸关之际,我极度恐慌。 我努力去回想十几岁时所接受的救生员训练。

 

I was paralyzed with fear, but I forced myself to move forward with this impromptu rescue. I don't want this. Surely someone else can save him before I have to.

我因恐惧而全身瘫软,但我强迫自己向前移动,展开这场突发的救援行动。 我不想做这些,在我施救之前肯定会有别人救他吧。

 

At the ridge of the jetty, I whirled around, convinced I'd see an athletic swimmer plowing through the rough water toward the boy. To my dismay, no one was there. I turned back out to the sea to see the boy battered by vicious waves about 25 yards away from me. Sucking in a deep breath, I threw myself into the water. As soon as I jumped in, I felt like I was back in that pool, breathless, struggling, terrified. Salt stung my eyes. Focus, I shouted in my head. Where is he?

我在防波堤的边上迅速转过身来,深信会看见某个游泳健将正向着小男孩劈波斩浪。 但是让我沮丧的是,一个人也没有。 我回身面向大海,看见25码开外恶浪击打着小男孩。 我深吸一口气,纵身跃入水中。 一跳进水里,我感觉仿佛又回到了当年的那个游泳池,我喘不过气,拼命挣扎,惊恐万分。 咸水刺痛了我的双眼。 “集中注意力,”我在心里喊道。 “他在哪里?”

 

Then, with clarity, I saw a thin arm waving weakly a few yards away. I swam with all my strength, reaching the boy just as he sank below the surface. I grabbed his arm and

pulled. He popped back up, eyes wide with terror, pawing and twisting against me. escue attempt, and we'd both perish. he listened, and was still.

然后我清楚地看到一只细小的手臂在离我几码处微弱地挥动着。 我拼尽全力游过去,在他刚要没水之时赶到了。 我抓住他的手臂拉他。 他冒出水面,眼睛因恐惧瞪得很大,胡乱抓扯着我。 我用法语命令他:“别慌!” 他这样挣扎会阻碍救援,那我们俩就都死定了。 我再次命令他:“别慌!” 谢天谢地,这次他听话了,不动了。

 

When I turned back toward shore a wave pounded over us. The jetty was further away! The rip current! It was forcibly dragging us out to the sea. I fought to get us back to land, but made little progress. I knew I'd never be able to escort him back like this. 当我转身朝岸边游去的时候,一个浪劈头盖脸打来。 我们离防波堤更远了! 是裂流! 它强行把我们拽往大海深处。 我挣扎着想带他游回岸上,但进展甚微。 我知道这种游法根本没法护着他返回岸边。

 

Desperate to survive, I remembered what I'd learned in my life saving class: Never, ever swim against the rip current! Swim sideways to the pull of the current and slowly make your way back toward shore. It was an odd-looking but practicable solution. Swim sideways and float to rest. Swim sideways and float to rest. We did that over and over. We slowly made our way to safety. jetty. I hadn't even noticed how close we were, only about seven feet left to go.

强烈求生欲望之下,我想起了在救生课上所学到的知识:永远不要与裂流相对而游!要顺其方向朝侧边游,慢慢地靠向岸边。 这个办法尽管看上去很荒谬,但却管用。 朝侧边游,浮起休息。 朝侧边游,浮起休息。 我们重复着这个方法,慢慢地游到了安全区。 “贾森,你能行的!”我听到站在防波堤上的马特对我说。 我甚至没有注意到我们离防波堤这么的近,只剩下大约7英尺的距离了。

 

And, as we made our way to safety I realized something incredible: I was no longer afraid. That absence of fear was a moment of triumph!

后来我们到达安全水域时,我觉得有些不可思议:我不再怕水了。 恐惧没了,这一刻我胜利了!

 

Matt jumped into the water. I tossed the boy to him. Just as I let go, a big wave picked him up and carried him all the way to Matt.

马特跳进水里。 我把男孩抛给他。 我刚一松手,一个大浪托起他直接把他送到了马特身边。

 

On the brink of collapse, I stopped fighting, just letting myself go. My hand hit the jetty. It was like an electric shock that brought me back to my senses. Someone grabbed for me.

我全身都快虚脱了,我不再划水,就这样放松自己顺水而漂。 我的手碰上了防波堤,仿佛触电一般,我重新恢复了神志。 有人抓住了我。

 

I felt strong arms lift me. I ascended not only from the sea onto the secure rocks of

the jetty — but also to my salvation, leaving behind the terrible fear that had gripped me for so long. I turned my head and saw the boy was hugged tightly by his mother. I looked out to the sea. Weary as I was, the water had never looked so beautiful.

我感觉到强壮有力的手臂将我托起。 我不仅从海里爬上防波堤的磐石,而且完成了自我拯救,摆脱了困扰已久的恐惧。 我扭过头看见小男孩被母亲紧紧拥入怀中。 虽已疲惫不堪,但放眼大海,我感觉海水比任何时候看起来都更美。

(二)Word Bank

Social anxiety symptoms often begin during adolescence. It's a developmental process that is 1) characterized by profound psychological changes, especially in terms of how we relate to others. One of the most frustrating 2) aspects of the adolescent years is the tendency for self-focus and a decrease in the 3) amount of focus we have for the feelings and needs of others.

While these changes are fairly universal, those of us who were born with a shy temperament (性格) can carry the adolescent fears, which may never 4) recede , into adulthood. An anxious temperament causes our brains to react forcibly when 5) exposed to the stress of sudden awareness of our peers and gradually we become more and more vulnerable. Our brains label the fear of exposure or embarrassment as highly dangerous. This may result in a(n) 6) vicious circle for many years: excessive self-consciousness and inhibition when you feel you are being observed.

To cope with the problem, I would like to 7) challenge you to strive for increased focus on other people, in place of your 8) excessive focus on yourself. Yes, I know, this is easier said than done. The fear may cause you to feel that you will lose control or make a fool of yourself when you are in the spotlight (聚光灯). But if you begin to build a new response, in 9) reaction to your fears, you will gradually build up a stronger and more positive response. Remember, don't let self-consciousness 10) paralyze you! Be courageous!

(三)Translation

实现中华民族伟大复兴(rejuvenation)是近代以来中国人民最伟大的梦想,我们称之为“中国梦”,其基本内涵是实现国家富强、民族振兴、人民幸福。中国梦,是让每一个积极进取的中国人形成世世代代的信念:只要经过不懈的奋斗便能获得更好的生活。人们必须通过自己的勤奋、勇气、创意和决心迈向繁荣,而不是依赖于社会和他人的援助。每个中国人都是中国梦的参与者和创造者。中国梦是民族的梦,也是每个中国人的梦。

Realizing the great national rejuvenation, which we define as the Chinese Dream, has been the greatest Chinese expectation since modern times. It basically means achieving prosperity for the country, renewal of the nation and happiness for the people, thus ensuring that every enterprising Chinese carries, generation after generation, the firm conviction that a better life is accomplished through persistent effort. People should achieve their prosperity through diligence, courage, creativity and determination instead of aid from society or other people. Each individual is a participant and a designer in the cause of realizing the Chinese Dream, for it is a dream not only for the entire nation but also for every Chinese.

Unit 4 Let’s go

 

(一)Text A:The surprising purpose of travel 令人惊奇的旅行目的

It's 4:15 in the morning, and my alarm clock has just stolen away a lovely dream. I almost return back to sleep before my eye catches my packed suitcase and I groan, remembering that I'm going to the airport. The taxi is late and then lost, and I'm getting increasingly nervous that I'll miss my flight. I run in when we arrive, stagger through security and finally get to my gate. After all the trouble of this morning, my flight is canceled and I'm stuck in this terminal for the next 218 minutes, and my only consolation is a cup of complimentary airport coffee. This is traveling, a burdensome series of running and waiting, and after countless hours, finally getting there.

早晨四点一刻,闹钟把我从美梦中惊醒,要不是突然看见早已收拾好的行李箱,我几乎又要睡着。想起来还要去机场,我叹了口气。 出租车来晚了,并且在途中迷了路,我越来越担心会赶不上飞机。 出租车一到机场我就冲进去,跌跌撞撞通过安检处,终于,我来到了登机口。 经历这一早所有的麻烦事,我乘坐的航班却被取消了。在接下来的218分钟里,我被困在了机场,唯一觉得安慰的是机场提供的一杯免费咖啡。 这就是旅行,让人心烦的跑跑停停。最终,在不知经过多少小时之后,终于到达要去的地方。

Why do we travel? I don't mind the actual flying, the wonder of being airborne in a dense metal bird. The rest of the journey, however, can feel like a tedious lesson in the ills of modernity, from the predawn x-ray screening to the sad airport malls selling clusters of keepsakes. It's the result of a globalized world, and it sucks.

我们为什么要旅行? 其实,我并不介意飞行本身,在这样一个密实的金属大鸟中飞行,让我感到很奇妙。 然而,旅程其余的部分,从一大早X光检查到出售大堆纪念品的糟糕的机

场商场,感觉就像是关于现代社会弊病的乏味课程。 这是全球化的结果,它糟糕透了。

 

Sometimes, of course, we travel because we need to. Because in this digital age, there is still something important about the handshake at a business luncheon. Or eating mom's special food on Thanksgiving. Or seeing your girlfriend on your 2-year anniversary. 当然,有时候我们旅行是因为我们需要去旅行。 因为即使在这个数字化时代,我们仍然有一些很重要的事情要去做,比如在商务午餐中与生意伙伴握手,或是在感恩节这天吃上妈妈特别准备的食物,或是在你和你女朋友的两周年纪念日这天去看她。

 

But most travel is decidedly optional. Only corporate travel, about 30% of trips over 50 miles, is truly compulsory. Instead, we travel because we want to, because the annoyances of the airport are offset by the thrill of being someplace new. Because work is stressful and our blood pressure is too high and we need a vacation somewhere tropical. Because home is boring. Because the flights are on sale. Because Paris is Paris. 但是大多数旅行是可去可不去的,在超过50英里的旅行中,只有30%属于真正必需的商务旅行。 我们旅行是因为我们想要去旅行,因为到一个新地方的兴奋和激动可以抵消在机场的各种烦心事;因为工作压力太大,我们的血压太高,我们要去热带地区度假;因为在家实在太无聊;因为航班都在打折;因为巴黎毕竟是巴黎。

Thanks to modern aviation, we can now move through space at an inhuman speed. For the first time in human history, we can outrun the sun and move from one hemisphere to another in a single day. Of course, it's not enough to simply get on a plane. If we want to realize the creative benefits of travel, then we have to re-think its overall purpose. Most

people, after all, escape to Paris so they don't have to think about those troubles they left behind. But here's the irony: Our mind is most likely to solve our most stubborn problems while we are sitting in luxury in a Left Bank café. So, instead of contemplating that buttery dessert, we should be conscious of those domestic issues we just can't solve.

多亏了现代航空技术,我们现在可以以非凡的速度在空中穿梭。 在人类历史中,这是我们第一次超过太阳——在短短一天中从一个半球到达另一个半球。 当然,仅仅往飞机上一坐是不够的。 我们要想认识到旅行在提高创新力方面的价值,还得再全面考虑其目的。 毕竟,大多数人逃到巴黎,是因为这样他们就可以不必考虑家里的那些烦心事。 但是,具有讽刺意味的是,当我们坐在豪华的左岸咖啡馆时,我们的脑子极有可能能解决那些最棘手的问题。 因此,我们应该考虑那些在家里解决不了的问题,而不是琢磨那些奶油甜点。

 

The larger lesson, though, is that our thoughts are saturated with the familiar. The brain is a space of near infinite possibility, which means that it spends a lot of time and energy choosing what not to notice. As a result, creativity is traded away for efficiency; we think in finite, literal prose, not symbolic verse. A bit of distance, however, helps loosen the cognitive chains that imprison us, making it easier to mingle the new with the old; the mundane is grasped from a slightly more abstract perspective. According to research, the experience of an exotic culture endows us with a valuable open-mindedness, making it easier to realize that even a trivial thing can have multiple meanings. Consider the act of leaving food on the plate: In China, this is often seen as a compliment, a signal that the host has provided enough to eat. But in America the same act is a subtle insult, an indication that the food wasn't good enough to finish.

但更应该知道的是我们的思想被熟悉的东西所充满。 大脑是一个几乎具有无限可能性的空间,这就意味着它花了大量的时间和精力选择不去注意什么。 因此,我们牺牲创造力来换取效率。我们以字义明确的散文方式思考,而非以具有象征意义的诗歌方式思考。 然而,一点的距离就可以帮助我们放松禁锢我们认知的链条,使新旧思想的结合更容易,对平淡无奇的事情可从更抽象的角度加以认知。 有研究指出,体验异国文化可以赋予我们宝贵的开放性思维,使我们更容易明白即使是微不足道的事物也可以有多种意义。 想一想把食物剩在盘子里这个行为: 在中国,这通常被看成是一种赞美,说明主人提供了足够的食物。 但是在美国,同样的行为却暗含侮辱,表明食物不够好,人们不愿意吃完。

 

Such multicultural contrasts mean that seasoned travelers are open to ambiguity, willing to realize that there are decidedly different (and equally valid) ways of interpreting the world. This, in turn, allows them to expand the circumference of their s they refuse to settle for their first answers and initial guesses.

这种多元文化对比说明,经验丰富的旅行者会接受对事物的多样性解读,他们欣然认识到对这个世界可以有截然不同(但却同样有效)的方式进行解释。 这也从而让他们扩大了“认知输入”的范围,因为他们拒绝仅仅满足于他们的最初答案和先前的猜测。

 

Of course, this mental flexibility doesn't come from mere distance, a simple change in latitude and longitude. Instead, this renaissance of creativity appears to be a side effect of difference: We need to change cultures, to experience the disorienting diversity of human traditions. The same facets of foreign travel that are so confusing (Do I tip the waiter? Where is this train taking me?) turn out to have a lasting impact, making us more creative

because we're less insular. We're reminded of all that we don't know, which is nearly everything; we're surprised by the constant stream of surprises. Even in this globalized age, we can still be amazed at all the earthly things that weren't included in the Let's Go guidebook and that certainly don't exist back home.

当然,这种思维的灵活性不仅仅来自纯粹的距离变化,即简单的经纬度的变化。 相反,这种创造力的复兴似乎是差异所带来的副产品: 我们需要处于不同的文化中,体验人类传统中纷繁复杂的多样性。 在国外旅行中让人迷惑的同一个方面的问题(如我该给服务生小费吗?火车要把我带到哪里?),产生了一种持久的影响, 使我们更加具有创造性, 因为我们不再那么视野狭隘了。 我们了解了我们不知道的东西,而这些东西几乎涵盖了一切;我们对接连不断的惊喜感到惊奇。 即使在这个全球化的时代,我们仍然会对所有未包括在《旅行指南》中的、平常的东西感到惊奇,而这些东西在自己家中也不存在。

 

So, let's not pretend that travel doesn't have its drawbacks, or that we endure jet lag for pleasure. We don't spend 10 hours lost in the Louvre because we like it, and the view from the top of Machu Picchu probably doesn't make up for the trouble of lost luggage. (More often than not, I need a vacation after my vacation.) We travel because we need to, because distance and difference are the secret cornerstones of creativity. When we get home, home is still the same. But something in our mind has been changed, and that changes everything.

当然,我们也并不是假装旅行没有缺点,或是说我们忍受飞行时差综合反应只是为了消遣。 在卢浮宫我们迷路十个小时,那不是因为我们喜欢迷路。我们站在马丘比丘古城遗址顶端俯瞰的风景可能也并不能弥补我们丢失行李的麻烦。 (通常,我在假期结束后还需要一个休

 

 

At 2 a.m. on April 27, about seven miles north of Memphis, at least one boiler 6) gave way, causing a huge explosion that destroyed the center portion of the boat, throwing sleeping men high into the air before landing in the river. Confusion and chaos 7) ensued as men tried to save themselves and others. Many drowned while others burned to death.

The direct cause of the explosion was later determined to be the leaky and poorly repaired steam boiler. Passengers who 8) survived the initial explosion had to risk their lives in the icy water of the Mississippi or burn with the ship. Many died of drowning or coldness. Bodies of 9) victims continued to be found downriver for months. Many were never recovered. Some of the Sultana's crew, including the captain, were among those who 10) perished.

 

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